There were separatist movements in Britain, Hispania and Gaul France in the west; and in the east, the relatively peaceful Parthians were replaced by the aggressive Sassanians as the pre-eminent power in Persia.
It also required Christian senators and equites to perform acts of worship to the Roman gods or lose their titles and property, and directed that they be executed if they continued to refuse. Portrayals in popular fiction[ edit ] Valerian appears in Harry Sidebottom 's historical fiction series of novels Warrior of Rome.
However, once out of Egypt, the advantage returned to the Palmyrans, with their knowledge of the local terrain. Alexander Severus was the first Roman Emperor to face the Persian.
Peace, however, did not last long. The eastern provinces were reabsorbed into the Roman Empire. It is interesting that the Persian account involves a ransom ofdenarii, not mentioned in the Roman accounts.
Within five years, Palmyra would have become a proper empire, comprising of roughly the eastern third of Rome. Among the prominent Christians executed as a result of their refusal to perform acts of worship to the Roman gods as ordered by Valerian were Cyprianbishop of CarthagePope Sixtus IIbishop of Rome along with six deacons and Lawrence of Rome.
Unlike many of the ephemeral emperors and rebels who bid for Imperial Power during the Crisis of the Third Century of the Roman Empire, Valerian was of a noble and traditional senatorial family. Search this website for more information: Lendering, Bishapur Retrieved April 17,Livius website: Early in his reign, affairs in Europe went from bad to worse, and the whole West fell into disorder.
The second, the following year, ordered the execution of Christian leaders. However, when his hypocrisy was pointed out, Aurelian ordered all the dogs in the city slaughtered. Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the empire between them, with the son taking the West, and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.
The Roman emperor, Valerian, was not going to stand for this in any way, and headed east to deal with this upstart dynasty. In, andValerian again became Consul Ordinarius. Turning again to face the Palmyrans, they quickly dispatched their opponents, chasing down the oven-pot men on their poor, tired mounts.
Due to this ability a member of the ruling family, Septimius Odaenathus, was made a senator in Rome. According to the Scriptores Historiae Augustae Zosimus  and John of Antioch Zenobia and her supporters were put on trial.
Quietus was the son of Fulvius Macrianus and a noblewoman, possibly named Junia.
According to Historia Augusta, he was a military tribune under Valerian, but this information is challenged by historians. He gained the imperial office with his brother Macrianus Minor, after the capture of Emperor Valerian in the Sassanid campaign of Reign: (with, Macrianus Minor).
Start studying Roman Empire Questions/Answers. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The Roman emperor, Valerian, was not going to stand for this in any way, and headed east to deal with this upstart dynasty.
Unfortunately for him, however, he was resoundingly defeated, and even captured by the Sassanian king, Shapur. Start studying Roman Empire Questions/Answers. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Jan 06, · Emperor after emperor was murdered, unleashing civil wars as ambitious generals fought against each other, rather than against the common Persian enemy. The Emperor Aurelian, who defeated her in AD, cobbled the Empire back together, but none of the underlying problems were solved (and three years later, he too was.
defeat of a Germanic tribe in the Rhine Valley, the soldiers refused the order, proclaiming Postumus emperor, and executing the heir to the throne. Thus was born the so-called Gallic Empire. Postumus and his successors held the territory for 14 years.
The first seven of those years were marked by relative peace and prosperity.The rise and fall of palmyra after the defeat and capture of the emperor valerian